Bearing is a basic part of modern industry, known as the “joint” of mechanical equipment, its main function is to support the rotating shaft or other moving body, guide the rotating or moving motion and bear the load transferred from the shaft or parts on the shaft. It plays a decisive role in the performance and reliability of the host machine. Bearing industry is a national basic and strategic industry, whose development level and industrial scale reflect the comprehensive industrial strength of a country and plays a pivotal role in the national economy and national defense construction. Bearings are high-precision products among mechanical products, which require not only the comprehensive support of theories from many disciplines such as mathematics and physics, but also many disciplines such as material science, heat treatment technology, precision processing and measurement technology, numerical control technology, efficient measurement methods and powerful computer technology, etc. Therefore, bearings are also a product representing national scientific and technological strength.
Bearing product specifications are more models, according to the host supporting type can be divided into wind power bearings, engineering machinery bearings, automotive bearings, machine tool bearings, railroad bearings, metallurgical mining machinery bearings, etc.; according to the direction of the load bearing work, divided into radial load bearing and thrust bearing mainly bearing axial load; according to the bearing work when running between the shaft and bearing seat friction nature, can be divided into two categories of sliding bearings and rolling bearings, of which rolling bearings are the main products of the bearing industry, usually said bearing, generally refers to rolling bearings.
Rolling bearings usually consist of outer ring, inner ring, rolling body and cage. The outer ring and inner ring of a bearing are collectively called bearing rings, which are ring-shaped parts with one or several raceways. The rolling elements are divided into two types: balls and rollers. The inner and outer rings and rolling elements are mainly made of bearing steel, including high-carbon chromium steel, chromium-nickel alloy steel and manganese-chromium alloy steel, etc. In addition, non-metallic materials such as ceramics, plastics, graphite and carbon fiber can be used as bearing materials. The cage has the role of separating the rolling body, avoiding mutual friction, evenly distributing the load and improving the rolling conditions, etc. Its materials include steel plate, brass, polyamide, glass fiber reinforced nylon, etc. Due to the characteristics of the rolling bearing’s own movement, its friction force is much smaller than that of sliding bearings, which can reduce the power consumption consumed in the friction resistance, so the energy-saving effect is remarkable. From theoretical analysis and production practice, the main bearing using rolling bearings in general small ball mill power saving up to 30%-35%, medium-sized ball mill power saving up to 15%-20%, large ball mill power saving up to 10%-20%.
1、The development status of bearing industry
(1) the development of the global bearing industry: the world bearing industry emerged in the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. The rise of the industrial revolution in Europe, the mass use of machines in production to promote the mechanical plant began to produce bearings. 1880 Britain began to produce bearings, 1883 Germany established the world’s first bearing company FAG, the United States in 1889 established the TIMKEN manufacturing company, Sweden in 1907 established SKF company. Global bearing consumption, Europe accounted for about 25%, the Americas accounted for 20%, after the past 15 years of rapid growth, Asia’s bearing consumption has accounted for 50% of the world. China has now grown to be the world’s largest bearing consumption market, accounting for more than 30%.
From a global perspective, the bearing industry after years of industrial competition, high-end market by Sweden SKF, Germany Schaeffler, Japan NSK, Japan JTEKT, Japan NTN, Japan NMB, Japan NACHI, the United States TIMKEN the four countries eight large multinational bearing enterprises monopoly: such as Sweden SKF company in 25 countries around the world have 105 production The German company Schaeffler has more than 180 branches in more than 50 countries around the world, with more than 79,000 employees; Japan NSK has established a sales network in 24 countries and regions around the world, with 75 production enterprises; the United States TIMKEN company in 30 countries around the world with operating agencies and production factories in 30 countries with nearly 20,000 employees. These companies have first-class scientific and technical personnel, processing equipment and manufacturing technology, leading the development direction of the world’s bearings.
At present, the global bearing industry has formed a domestic international competition, domestic competition international situation. 2013, the end of the world’s eight multinational bearing companies in China, six companies set up a Chinese headquarters, as of 2014, eight multinational bearing companies in China have invested in the production of bearings and related products factories. Among them: Sweden SKF has 14 factories (including service factories), Germany SCHAEFFLER has 7 factories, the United States TIMKEN has 7 factories (including service factories), Japan NSK has 12 factories, Japan NTN has 10 factories, Japan JTEKT has 8 factories, Japan NMB has 1 factory, Japan NACHI has 2 factories. Eight major multinational bearing companies in China have about 61 production enterprises. In addition, there are 2 factories of Japan Tsubaki Nakajima Company (steel ball), 1 factory of Japan Enpibi Company (with seat outer spherical) and other foreign bearing enterprises.1
CICC International Consulting statistics show that 70% of the world’s bearing market share is shared by eight multinational bearing group companies, including Japan’s NSK and other five major companies, Sweden’s SKF, Germany’s SCHAEFFLER, the United States TIMKEN. Chinese bearing manufacturers have 20% of the global market share, of which 80% is sold to Asia, 10% to Europe, less than 7% of bearings sold to the Americas.
(2) China’s bearing industry development: China’s bearing industry was founded in 1938, when Japan’s NTN Bearing Manufacturing Corporation established “Manchurian Bearing Manufacturing Corporation” in Wafangdian, the predecessor of the Waxaxhaft Group. During the Korean War in the 1950s, the Waxaxaxxwa Group moved north and established a new bearing factory in Harbin, which is now known as the Ha Axis Group.
In the mid-fifties, the Waxaxhaft Group built the Luoyang Bearing Plant, now known as the Luo Shaft Group, in accordance with the needs of national construction. At the end of the 1960s, the Wazhaft Group built the “Northwest Bearing General Factory” and the Luoshaft Group built the “Xiangfan Bearing Factory”. These enterprises were born in the era of China’s planned economy, and were the pioneers of the blue sea of China’s bearing industry at that time, laying a solid foundation for China’s bearing industry.
Since the founding of the country, especially since the reform and opening up, China’s economy has maintained a continuous and rapid development trend, bearing industry has formed a set of independent and complete industrial system, whether from bearing production, or bearing sales, China has stepped into the ranks of the bearing industry, ranking third in the world. According to the “Global and China Market Bearing Forecast and Investment Feasibility Analysis Report (2021 Edition)” statistics published by CKC International Consulting: 2018, China’s bearing industry enterprises above the size of the main business income of 184.8 billion yuan, an increase of 3.36% over 2017, to complete the bearing production of 21.5 billion sets, an increase of 2.38% over 2017. Although China is already a world bearing production power, but not yet the world bearing production power, China’s bearing industry industrial structure, research and development capabilities, technology level, product quality, efficiency and effectiveness are a large gap with the international advanced level.